The civilization of ancient Mesopotamia lay in a valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and was referred to as the land between the rivers. The unpredictable land conditions, due to the weather effecting the silt deposited by the two rivers, allowed for large-scale irrigation and an abundance of food, which was the base of their commerce. Egyptian geography was similar in that the civilization lay beside the Nile River, which also provided silt and agriculture from yet more predictable flooding.
Mesopotamian religion focused on the gods as living realities who affected all aspects of life. They adopted the Code of Hammurabi, which supported strict justice and penalties. Offerings and monuments were dedicated to the gods including the temple, which was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city and often built on a ziggurat tower. Egyptians mainly worshipped the sun gods and land gods, but later came to acknowledge the judge of the dead, Osiris, which focused on morality.
Mesopotamian government was focused on the full power of kingship assisted by the army, the government bureaucracy, and the priests and priestesses, while the Egyptian government varied throughout history, as they went through stages of strong monarchical power, bureaucracy, and also weak political structures and rivalry for leadership by a pharaoh.
The accomplishments that had these civilizations were different. One interest of Mesopotamian people were developed by their use of a cuneiform system which enabled them to write history and literature and practice mathematics and astronomy. Egyptians were famous for their pyramids and the paintings and writings inside them suggested their culture of classes, entertainment, and skills.
In conclusion, these civilizations truly paved the way for today’s society although these had some differences in aspects like government, accomplishments, among others.